In the BBC corpus there are several cases where the ambiguity cannot be resolved with reference to either suprasegmental features intonation, stress, and pitch or co-occurrence patterns with modal verbs and adverbs cf. Fetzer, As a result, the data suggests that I think is used strategically and the ambiguity between emphasis and backgrounding, certainty and uncertainty, subjectivity and stance taking is often intentional.
The probability of manipulative intent is further increased if we consider that there are social class differences in terms of the use of particular PrMs. Huspek suggests that I think has different functions and interpretations for working-class speakers and power-holding speakers: while it marks certainty for middle-class speakers, it marks solidarity among members of the working class Huspek, cited in Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen, : By using I think, therefore, politicians can appeal or so they might believe to the rationality of the middle class listeners and the solidarity of the working class audience, at the same time.
Because of its inherently semasiological nature, pragmatic marker research has been characterised by microanalyses and bottom-up approaches to a variety of discourse-pragmatic phenomena. However, if PrM research is informed by CDA, an inherently top-down approach preoccupied with ethical and societal concerns cf. Angermuller, : 11 , we can gain new insights into distributional patterns that were previously unnoticed.
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The genre-based analysis of political news interviews and celebrity interviews cf. However, on the basis of the analysis of manipulative uses, we can make further refinements to the distributional patterns of PrMs. As we saw above, celebrity interviews are markedly different from spontaneous face-to-face conversations in that manipulative uses are as salient in celebrity interviews as in close-to-the-core political news interviews. These tendencies were revealed after we looked at co-occurrence patterns with pronominal choices and vocatives, both of which have been extensively studied as manipulative in the relevant CDA literature.
Conversely, PrM research has much to offer in informing CDA analyses and can either reinforce observations made on the basis of other lexical and morpho-syntactic choices or reveal new discursive strategies of control and dominance through quantitative analyses of functional distributions, D-values and co-occurrence patterns. The analysis of interactional texts, therefore, requires a new toolbox, to which PrM research can provide a useful addition.
A pilot study cf. How to cite this article : Furko P Manipulative uses of pragmatic markers in political discourse. Palgrave Communications. By a neutral pre-genre Swales means everyday, spontaneous conversations where manipulative intent is not presumed. Aijmer K I think —An english modal particle.
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Agenda Relevance: A Study in Formal Pragmatics
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